Fang Fang, Sinziana Paduroiu, Dugan Hammock and Klee Irwin (2019)

In quasicrystals, any given local patch—called an emperor—forces at all distances the existence of accompanying tiles—called the empire—revealing thus their inherent nonlocality. In this chapter, we review and compare the methods currently used for generating the empires, with a focus on the cut-and-project method, which can be generalized to calculate empires for any quasicrystals that are projections of cubic lattices. Projections of non-cubic lattices are more restrictive and some modifications to the cut-and-project method must be made in order to correctly compute the tilings and their empires. Interactions between empires have been modeled in a game-of-life approach governed by nonlocal rules and will be discussed in 2D and 3D quasicrystals. These nonlocal properties and the consequent dynamical evolution have many applications in quasicrystals research, and we will explore the connections with current material science experimental research.